Basic Door Vocabulary

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Bark--Areas of fiber from outside a tree.

Bevel--Machine angle other than a right angle. That is, a 3-degree bevel which is equivalent to a 1/8-in. drop in a 2-in. span.

Beveled edge--Edge of a door which forms an angle of less than 90 degrees with the wide face of the door, such as a 3-degree beveled edge.

Blister--Spot or area where veneer does not adhere.

Book size--The height and width of a door before prefitting.

Bow--A flatwise deviation from a straight line drawn from top to bottom; a curvature along the width of the door.

Brashness--Condition of wood characterized by low resistance to shock and by abrupt failure across the grain without splintering.  

Burl--Swirl or twist in grain of wood, which usually occurs near a knot but does not contain a knot.

Butt joint--Joint formed by square edge surfaces (ends, edges, faces) coming together.

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Chalk--White or other color chalk marks used by mills for some form of identification marking defects for repair.  

Chatter--Lines appearing across the panel at right angles to the grain giving the appearance of one or more corrugations resulting from bad setting of sanding equipment.  

Chicken tracks--Expression for scars which give the particular effect of a chicken's footprint. It is caused by air roots or vines.

Clustered--When a defect described in the grading rule is sufficient in number and sufficiently close together to appear to be concentrated in one area.

Composition face panels--A door face panel made of a wood derivative.  

Core-- Innermost layer of section in flush door construction. Types of construction include: wood block; particleboard; wood block (lined); hollow; ladder; mesh or cellular.

Core (Wood Block)--Solid core of wood blocks or strips  

Core (Particleboard)--Sold core of wood or other lignocellulose particles bonded together, cured under heat, and pressed into a rigid panel.  

Core (Wood Block, Lined)-- Solid core of two parts: a central wood block core bonded to two core liners of wood or other lignocellulose materials.

Core (Hollow)--Core assembly of strips or other units of wood, wood derivative, or insulation board, with intervening hollow cells or spaces which support outer faces.

Core (Ladder)--Hollow core composed of strips of wood, wood derivative, or insulation board with the strips running either horizontally or vertically throughout the core area with air cells and/or spaces between the strips and supporting the door faces.  

Core (Mesh or Cellular)--Hollow core composed of strips of wood, wood derivative, or insulation board, interlocked and running horizontally, vertically, or diagonally throughout the core area with air cells and/or spaces betwe en the strips and supporting the outer faces.

Crossbanding--Veneer placed between the core and face veneers of plywood face panels of wood flush doors in which the direction of the grain in 2-ply construction is at right angles to that of the face veneer.
Cross bar--Type of figure or irregularity of grain resembling a dip in the grain, running at right angles, or nearly so, to the length of the veneer.  

Cross break--Separation of wood cells across the grain.  

Cup--A deviation from a straight line drawn from side-to-side; a curvature along the width of a door.
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Delamination--separation of plies or layers of wood or other materials through failure at an adhesive joint.

Discolorations--Stains in wood substances. Common are sap stains and blue stains.

Doze--Form of incipient decay characterized by a dull and lifeless appearance of the wood, accompanied by a lack of strength and a softening of the wood substance.

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Edge band--Strip along the outside edges of the two sides and/or top and bottom of a door.

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Face panels--Hardwood plywood, high pressure laminate, hardboard, or composition panels or combination thereof, whether flat or configured, which are used for the faces of flush doors.

Fill (putty repairs)--Repair to an open defect with fast-drying plastic putty.

Finger joint--Series of interlocking fingers cut on the ends of two pieces of wood which mesh together and are held by adhesive.  

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Gap-- Open splits in the inner ply or plies, or improperly joined veneer when joined veneers are used for inner plies.

Gum spots--Well-defined openings between rings of annual growth, usually containing gum or pitch.

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Kiln-dried--Lumber dried in a closed chamber in which the removal of moisture is controlled by artificial heat and usually by relative humidity.

Lumber dried in a closed chamber in which the removal of moisture is controlled by artificial heat and usually by relative humidity.

Knife marks--Very fine lines that appear across a panel that may look as if they are raised resulting from some defect.

Knot (sound)--Cross section of a branch or limb with grain usually running at right angles to that of the wood in which it occurs.  

Knot holes--Voids produced by knots dropping from the wood in which they were originally embedded.

Knots (pin)--Sound knots less than 1/4-in. in diameter.

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Lap--Condition where veneers composing plywood are so misplaced that one piece overlaps the other and does not make a smooth joint.

Lock block--Concealed block same thickness as a door stile or core which is adjacent to the inside edge of the stile at the midpoint and into which a lock is fitted.

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Patches--Matching wood pieces carefully inserted and glued into the door face after defective portions have been removed.

Pitch--Bleeding resin.

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Rails-- Cross or horizontal pieces of the framework of a wood flush door.

Rail (bottom)--Bottom cross or horizontal piece of a door. 

Rail (top)--Top cross or horizontal piece of a door.  

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Shake--Separation along the grain, the greater part of which occurs between the rings of annual growth.

Shims--A split repaired in a piece of wood veneer.  

Show-through--Irregular surfaces visible on the face of a wood flush door.

Standard door--By industry practice, a standard door is book size in both width and height.

Stiles--Upright or vertical pieces of the framework of a wood flush door. 

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Tape--Strips of gummed paper used to hold edges of veneer together at the joints before gluing.

Telegraphing-- Visible irregularities in surface of face of plywood caused by corresponding irregularities in the underlaying plies such as core laps, voids, or extraneous matter.

Twist--A deviation in which one or two corners of a door are out of plane with the other corners of the door.  

Types (door styles)-- The selection includes exterior entrance doors, interior passage doors, French or casement doors, bi-fold doors, side lights, patio sliding and swinging doors, thermal insulated-glass doors, louver do ors, screen doors, and specialty door products. Several selected types are illustrated here.

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Vine streaks (marks)-- Scars in wood generally caused by the stems of vines clinging by their hair-like roots to the tree trunk.

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Warp-- Any distortion in the plane of a door itself and not its relationship to the frame or jamb in which it is to be hung. Warp includes bow, cup, and twist:

Wood flush door--Stressed skin construction consisting of a core, stiles, and rails, and or/edge banding, two face panels, almost all of which are wood, wood derivative. materials, or high pressure decorative laminate.  

Worm track or scar--Groove or resulting scar tissue in wood caused by worms or other borers.

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 The Hardwood Company
Main Office: 550 North Main Street
PO Box 126, Granite Falls, NC  28630
Phone: 828-396-1556  Fax: 828-396-8182
Copyright 2003-04.  All Rights Reserved.